The internet is something without which life has become nearly impossible. According to the research done by The Extent, approximately 3.2 Million people around the globe are using internet on daily basis. After doing some math, we found that 40% of the world’s population uses the internet and that’s a lot. However, the internet we use is just 5% or even less of the total size of the internet. This is where the concept of dark web, deep web and Mariana’s web comes. The web is divided into following types:
- Surface Web
- Dark Web
- Deep Web
- Mariana’s Web
Let’s discuss about these in detail.
I AM NOT INCLUDING THE CONTENT OF EITHER WEB TYPE BECAUSE IT IS NOT APPROPRIATE FOR ALL USERS. HOWEVER, IF YOU WANT SLEEPLESS NIGHTS, YOU CAN SEARCH FOR IT ON GOOGLE!
Surface Web is also known as the visible web. In simple language, it is a web that we normally surf. The best example is the website you are reading this article on. All the websites that you can see indexed on Google are the part of Surface Web.
The Extent’s research shows that Google’s index of the Surface Web contains about 14.5 Billion pages.
Dark Web is yet another type of the web which forms some part of the deep web. It contains websites that are generally not indexed by the search engine. However, that does not mean that these are inaccessible. They can be accessed using a specific software or authorization to access. But there are some sources that suggest these websites can be accessed if you have the web address of that website. You may find these links in the public chat rooms.
BUT THAT DOES NOT MEAN YOU WILL GO AND SEARCH FOR THE LINKS THESE to WEBSITES BECAUSE THEY CAN BE DANGEROUS!
Dark networks that constitute the dark web can small friend-to-friend or peer-to-peer as well as big popular networks like Tor, Freenet, and I2P that are run by public or individuals. Users of Dark Web refer to the regular clear net due to its unencrypted nature. For those who don’t know what clear net is, it literally points the websites that are unencrypted. These websites often lack anonymity and the owners of these websites can identify its users through IP addresses. The tor darknet can be also called Onionland. Basically, it refers to one of the top-level domains, .onion. Traffic anonymization is also very common on such websites which are called onion routing.
ACCESSIBILITY OF DARK WEB
Dark web websites cannot be accessed normally because they are not indexed by the Search Engines. To get into these, you need a proper web address and software. Dark websites can be accessed through the normal browsers too but it can be a serious harm to your security. However, if you access these using a software like Tor Browser, you are going to stay completely anonymous. The location of the darknet users stays unknown due to the layered encryption system. Layered encryption system creates a number of layers on one connection which makes harder to identify IP Addresses.
For better understanding, if you search for “My IP” on Google or any other search engine, you will be able to see your IP Address there i.e you are visible on the internet right now. However, when you are using layered encryption system, searching “My IP” on either search engine will show you 4 or 5 more addresses including your address. So you can make out which one is more secure.
Tor browser and Tor-accessible sites are widely used among the darknet users and can be identified by the domain “.onion”. While Tor focuses on providing anonymous access to the Internet, I2P specializes in allowing anonymous hosting of websites. Identities and locations of darknet users stay anonymous and cannot be tracked due to the layered encryption system. The darknet encryption technology routes users’ data through a large number of intermediate servers, which protects the users’ identity and guarantees anonymity. The transmitted information can be decrypted only by a subsequent node in the scheme, which leads to the exit node. The complicated system makes it almost impossible to reproduce the node path and decrypt the information layer by layer. Due to the high level of encryption, websites are not able to track geolocation and IP of their users, and users are not able to get this information about the host. Thus, communication between darknet users is highly encrypted allowing users to talk, blog, and share files confidentially.
The darknet is also used for illegal activity such as illegal trade, forums, and media exchange for pedophiles and terrorists. At the same time, traditional websites have created alternative accessibility for the Tor browser in efforts to connect with their users. For example, launched a new version of its website available exclusively to Tor users.
On the dark web, one can find most of the illegal content. As per the research by the Gareth Owen from the University of Portsmouth, most commonly found content on the dark web is Child Pornography followed by black markets. One more highlight of the dark web is that you can even hire Hitmans. Many whistleblowing sites maintain a presence as well as political discussion forums.
These sites even deal in bitcoins and fraud-related services. In July 2017, Roger Dingledine, one of the three founder of the Tor Project, said that Facebook is the biggest hidden service. The dark web comprises only 3% of the traffic in the Tor network.
These websites use botnets to generate a huge amount of traffic and profits. Using bots to generate traffic is illegal in the conditions posed by the Webmaster sites like Google.
DarkNets that sell things like drugs, hitmans etc. accept bitcoins as payment methods. These are then converted into cash. A research study undertaken by Jean-Loup Richet, a research fellow at ESSEC, and carried out with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, highlighted new trends in the use of Bitcoin tumblers for money laundering purposes. A common approach was to use a digital currency exchanger service which converted Bitcoin into an online game currency (such as gold coins in World of Warcraft) that will later be converted back into money.
Hacking Groups And Services
There are many dark websites where you can hire hackers to perform some illegal task. Not only this, there are some sites where hackers offer services like making a highly infectious virus. Many hacking groups such Code: Green recruit hackers depending on their skills. Then these hackers make tools which then end up infecting victims computer with viruses like Trojan Horse or backdoor.
Every day, 1000s of scams take place on one of the famous platforms like Paypal and Bitcoins. Recently, there was a scam of approximately USD 2000 on Venmo. According to the victim, he sold his two iPhone X to a mysterious person whom he met on Facebook. He also mentioned that the payment was made on his Venmo account but that payment was refunded after some time.
Internet gets flooded with these stories every day. You can Google to read about some.
According to the law enforcement, child pornography is Illegal. However, Dark Web sites don’t take that into consideration and upload such content almost on daily basis. Visiting these sites can be kind of dangerous as your computer can get infected with malware.
The deep web, also known as the invisible or the hidden web is the part of the World Wide Web whose content is not indexed by Search Engines for any reason. You may encounter some dark websites but in case of Deep Web, its impossible. The content of the deep web is hidden, it can be only accessed with if you have the URL or IP Address. Some websites are so secure that to enter them, you require a password.
In 2001, Micahel K. Bergman said how searching on the internet can be compared to dragging a net across the surface of the ocean: a great deal may be caught in the net, but there is a wealth information that is deep and therefore missed. This statement clarifies that there is a lot of information that websites carry but the problem is that search Engines we use cannot access or retrieve them.
It is impossible to measure, and hard to put estimates on the size of the deep web because the majority of the information is hidden or locked inside databases. Early estimates suggested that the deep web is 400 to 550 times larger than the surface web. However, since more information and sites are always being added, it can be assumed that the deep web is growing exponentially at a rate that cannot be quantified.
Estimates based on extrapolations from a study done at University of California, Berkeley in 2001 speculate that the deep web consists of about 7.5 petabytes. More accurate estimates are available for the number of resources in the deep web: research of He et al. detected around 300,000 deep web sites in the entire web in 2004, and, according to Shestakov, around 14,000 deep web sites existed in the Russian part of the Web in 2006.
Talking about the non-indexed content. Bergman, in the paper on the Deep Web Published in The Journal Of Electronic Publishing, mentioned that Jill Ellsworth used the term Invisible Web in 1994 to refer to the websites that were not registered with search engines. Bergman also cited a January 1996 article by Frank Garcia.
It would be a site that’s possibly reasonably designed, but they didn’t bother to register it with any of the search engines. So, no one can find them! You’re hidden. I call that the invisible Web.
This shows that concept of the Deep web is not new, it was there in the early days too. Another early use of the term Invisible Web was by the Bruce Mount Matthew B. Kill of the Personal Library Software, in a description of the #1 Deep Web tool found in a December 1996 press release.
Now you must be thinking how these websites manage to prevent search engines from indexing them. Let’s discuss.
These are the methods used by the web pages from being indexed by traditional engines.
- Contextual web: pages with content varying for different access contexts (e.g., ranges of client IP addresses or previous navigation sequence).
- Dynamic content: dynamic pages which are returned in response to a submitted query or accessed only through a form, especially if open-domain input elements (such as text fields) are used; such fields are hard to navigate without domain knowledge.
- Limited access content: sites that limit access to their pages in a technical way (e.g., using the Robots Exclusion Standard or CAPTCHAs, or no-store directive which prohibit search engines from browsing them and creating cached copies).
- Non-HTML/text content: textual content encoded in multimedia (image or video) files or specific file formats not handled by search engines.
- Private web: sites that require registration and login (password-protected resources).
- Software: certain content is intentionally hidden from the regular Internet, accessible only with special software, such as Tor, I2P, or other darknet software. For example, Tor allows users to access websites using the .onion server address anonymously, hiding their IP address.
- Unlinked content: pages which are not linked to by other pages, which may prevent Web crawling programs from accessing the content. This content is referred to as pages without backlinks (also known as in links). Also, search engines do not always detect all backlinks from searched web pages.
- Web archives: Web archival services such as the Wayback Machine enable users to see archived versions of web pages across time, including websites which have become inaccessible, and are not indexed by search engines such as Google.
The content on the deep web is somewhat similar to the Dark Web. Hiring hitmans and much more. However, in deep web comes Red Rooms. Now I am not talking about the rooms that are painted in Red Color. It is a service of a deep web, where murder videos are shown on demand. Now, these videos can be either uploaded or sometimes even live.
Accessing this content is not that complex job. If a user wishes to enter a Red Room, he/she has to pay some amount of money to the owner. After that, the content he/she will find may affect their spinal cord. Red Rooms are basically for those who are either criminals or are mentally disordered. According to some of the Reddit users, most of the Red Room videos are live. The main focus is on the bed where a person or a subject is severely tortured.
Talking about how the torture is done, the users pay some more amount of money to make the torturer do what they want to see. It’s like an auction. For example, paying $1500 for cutting eyes and much more.
This is the deepest web among all of the web types discussed above. The most interesting thing is that there is not much information available about this web which leaves us thinking if it’s real or not. However, there are some incidents that mark its existence. Will talk about the most famous one in a second.
This web got its name from the unreachable portion of the sea, Mariana’s Trench. I think you must have guessed that this is the unreachable part of the internet. I would say that nothing is as secure as this one. For better understanding, imagine that you have a home server which can be accessed only if a device connects to a particular Wi-Fi network. Now not everyone can access that data because that person has to find where the access point is located. Right? This is what Mariana’s Web actually is.
Talking about the content, I would say that you can find world’s most unpleasant things in Mariana’s Web. The content found on Mariana’s web is so disturbing that it can affect the mental health of a person with a weak heart.
STORY OF A WEB DESIGNER
Now as promised, I am telling you the story of a person who accidentally got access to the servers of Mariana’s Web. On Reddit, a random hacker offered $50,000/week job. On reading that offer, web designer thought that its a some kind of a prank but as he was in need of money, he accepted the proposal. After that, he was made to work on a server. The tasks given to him were really simple. He was made to design websites with really simple layout.
As we know that after a successful code, we have to store HTML files somewhere Right? So he was given the access of some parts of that server on which he was working. At this point, a basic human nature arosed and he started searching for files inside that server. He found some videos and Binary codes. This content was uploaded by him on the social media right away. I have not included that content here because its not appropriate for all users.
WHY GOVERNMENT IS NOT DOING ANYTHING?
This must the question in the minds of most people. I would say that Government is doing everything to completely eliminate unwanted webs but as discussed above, these websites are more secure than the security systems controlling our Nuclear power stations. However, there are many websites that are already banned by the Government.
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